220.127.116.11. Capital repairs of the engine
It is not always easy to come to a conclusion about expediency of complete capital repairs of the engine as it is necessary to be based on a number of indicators.
The big run is not a sufficient indicator of need of carrying out capital repairs, on the other hand, the small run does not exclude need of carrying out capital repairs. The most important indicator most likely is timeliness of the current maintenance of the engine. At timely change of oil and the air filter, and also when performing all other necessary works on service, the engine serves reliably throughout many thousands of kilometers of a run. On the contrary, insufficient on volume or untimely maintenance can be the reason of sharp reduction of a resource of the engine.
The raised consumption of oil indicates wear of piston rings, oil scraper caps and (or) the directing plugs of valves. It is necessary to be convinced that leaks are not the reason of the raised oil consumption, and only after that to draw a conclusion about unfitness of piston rings and guides of plugs. To define a probable cause of malfunction, measure a compression in engine cylinders.
Check oil pressure the manometer screwed to the place of the contact sensor of emergency pressure of oil and compare result of check to standard value. If oil pressure low, then can be the cause wear of radical and conrod bearings and (or) details of the oil pump.
Loss of power, "failures" in operation of the engine, a detonation or metal knocks, the increased noise from the gas-distributing mechanism, the increased fuel consumption indicate the need carrying out capital repairs, especially, if all these signs of abnormal work are shown at the same time. If performance of all adjustments does not lead to improvement, then the only means of elimination is repair with replacement or restoration of details.
Capital repairs consist in restoration of details of the engine to the state specified in specifications for the new engine. When carrying out capital repairs pistons and piston rings are replaced. Connecting and radical rods are also subject to replacement, and if necessary regrinding of a bent shaft before restoration of standard gaps in radical and conrod necks with radical and connecting rods is carried out. As a rule, also valves as their state at the time of repair as a rule not absolutely satisfactory are subject to repair. During capital repairs of the engine repair of such units as the ignition distributor, a starter and the generator is also carried out. As a result the repaired engine has to have qualities of almost new unit and sustain a considerable run without refusals.
At capital repairs it is necessary to replace such important details of the cooling system as hoses, the thermostat and the pump of cooling liquid. The radiator should be surveyed carefully on tightness and purity of internal channels. At capital repairs of the engine it is necessary to replace also the oil pump.
Before capital repairs of the engine study the description of the corresponding procedures that there was an impression of the forthcoming amount of works and requirements to them. At respect for all norms and rules, in the presence of all necessary tools and devices, and also at implementation of all technical requirements it is simple to execute capital repairs, however considerable costs of time will be involved. Approximately not less than two weeks, especially are required if for repair or restoration of details it is necessary to address in a specialized workshop. Check existence of spare parts and in advance think of acquisition of necessary special tools and the equipment. Almost all works can be performed by means of standard tool kit though precision measuring instruments will be necessary for check and definition of suitability of these or those details. Often check of a condition of details is carried out in specialized workshops in which also receive recommendations about replacement or restoration of these or those details.
It is necessary to address in workshops of car service only after full dismantling of the engine and check of a condition of all details, especially the block of cylinders and the crankshaft to solve what operations on service and repair will be carried out in workshops. As the condition of the block of cylinders is the defining factor of making decision on its further repair or about purchase of the new repair block of cylinders, it is necessary to buy spare parts or to perform operations on machining of the accompanying details only after careful check of its technical condition. Make it a rule that it is not necessary to make hasty unreasonable decisions, – otherwise repair can be more expensive because of installation of worn-out or repair details.
In conclusion we will note that assembly of any units should be carried out with all care in the pure room to avoid further failures of the repaired engine and to ensure its reliable functioning.